Rushdi, Ali Muhammad Ali and Talmees, Fayez Ahmad
(2019)
*Computations of the Eight Basic Measures in Diagnostic Testing.*
In:
Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science Vol. 2.
B P International, pp. 66-87.
ISBN 978-93-89562-01-9

## Abstract

Diagnostic testing concerning categorical or dichotomized variables is ubiquitous in many fields including, in

particular, the field of clinical or epidemiological testing. Typically, results are aggregated in two-by-two

contingency-table format, from which a surprisingly huge number of indicators or measures are obtained. In this

chapter, we study the eight most prominent such measures, using their medical context. Each of these measures

is given as a conditional probability as well as a quotient of certain natural frequencies. Despite its fundamental

theoretical importance, the conditional-probability interpretation does not seem to be appealing to medical

students and practitioners. This paper attempts a partial remedy of this situation by visually representing

conditional probability formulas first in terms of two-variable Karnaugh maps and later in terms of simplified

acyclic (Mason) Signal Flow Graph (SFGs), resembling those used in digital communications or DNA

replication. These graphs can be used, among other things, as parallels to trinomial graphs that function as a

generative model for the ternary problems of conditional probabilities, which were earlier envisioned by Pedro

Huerta and coworkers. The arithmetic or algebraic reading or solving of a typical conditional-probability

problem is facilitated and guided by embedding the problem on the SFG that parallels a trinomial graph.

Potential extensions of this work include utilization of more powerful features of SFGs, interrelations with

Bayesian Networks, and reformulation via Boolean-based probability methods.

Item Type: | Book Section |
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Subjects: | Eprint Open STM Press > Computer Science |

Depositing User: | Unnamed user with email admin@eprint.openstmpress.com |

Date Deposited: | 16 Nov 2023 13:08 |

Last Modified: | 16 Nov 2023 13:08 |

URI: | http://library.go4manusub.com/id/eprint/1713 |